Bone augmentation serves three main objectives: firstly, it improves function by allowing the implant to be placed in the optimal prosthetic position and axis. Secondly, bone augmentation optimizes aesthetics, since the position of the implant—particularly the bone shoulder on the implant—forms the base for soft tissue. Thirdly, it improves the prognosis of the implant. Bone augmentation enables the implant to be surrounded by solid bone on all sides, thus preventing downgrowth of the junctional epithelium and pocket formation, and permitting selection of sufficiently stable implant hardware. Module 5.1 describes patient selection for augmentation surgery, the SAC classification system, and the consequences and severity grades of alveolar ridge atrophy. Bone tissue formation and the biology of bone healing are described, including a discussion of these processes in the presence of various types of defects. The chapter on the value and use of autologous bone grafts in combination with bone substitute material and other biomaterials is of particular importance.